APIs are an increasingly popular way for companies to connect services, move data and perform other functions. However, they also present challenges for security teams.
Poorly designed APIs don’t restrict the number and size of resources a client/user can request, and they expose authentication vulnerabilities that enable brute-force attacks. Additionally, APIs often have unclear boundaries between regular and administrative functions, exposing unintended functional flaws.
What is an API?
What is API cybersecurity? Application Programming Interface, or API, is the acronym for it. Data transfer between programs on a network is commonplace. Thanks to APIs, software developers may quickly build code to access the platforms and applications they want to use.
When you visit a website, use an app, or watch a video, your communication with that company happens through user interface components like a screen with graphical elements, a keyboard, and a mouse. However, working with software can be fine without a graphical user interface to communicate and exchange data or functionalities with other programs.
To facilitate this communication, software programs use machine-readable interfaces called APIs. These APIs enable applications to talk to each other in real-time.
Web APIs are the most common type of API. These provide machine-readable data and functionality transfer between systems representing client-server architecture based on a Remote Procedure Call (RPC) protocol.
Web APIs are mainly used for developing websites or Web apps. They provide the ability to add or access information, services, or functionality from a third-party provider through methods like POST, GET, and PUT. These methods generally involve a payload in the form of a file in a defined format (usually JSON or XML) and use a URI to address a specific resource that will receive the request.
How do APIs work?
APIs are machine-readable interfaces that help disparate programs communicate with one another without requiring the developer to understand their source code. They’re a crucial component of digital transformation.
For example, you might use an API to access information from a service such as Google Maps or PayPal. Instead of building a whole architecture to do this, you’d add that API into your site’s code and have it do the work for you forever.
When you request an API, you use a set of HTTP verbs, such as GET and POST, to send data back to the server. The server receives the information and returns a response in a readable format, such as JSON or XML.
These responses are accompanied by a status code that tells you whether the request was successful or not. In addition, the API identifies the specific endpoint it’s calling to send information from.
You can also use an API to search and update data stored in a database or server. It is a great way to pull out specific pieces of data, like weather reports, GPS location updates, and financial transactions from servers.
A good API makes it easier for developers to create and build new applications on top of existing ones. It also prevents them from reinventing the wheel, which can be time-consuming and costly.
What are the threats to APIs?
APIs are a crucial component of the digital transformation of companies and government agencies. They allow businesses and agencies to deliver data and services in ways that are more accessible and tailored to users.
But APIs are also at risk of attack. Hackers are increasingly targeting APIs to exploit them, breaching systems and stealing sensitive information.
There are several common threats that APIs can be vulnerable to, such as XML parsing, injection flaws, and unauthorized access. These vulnerabilities can lead to many problems, including data loss, denial of service attacks, and disclosing confidential company information.
XML parsing is a severe threat to API security because a poorly written XML response can expose data that a client doesn’t have permission to see. It can include identifying information, credit card numbers, bank details, and passwords.
An injection is another common API vulnerability, and it’s especially problematic when an API returns the same generic data for every request. It allows attackers to inject data into an API’s recommendations, allowing them to execute unintended commands or access sensitive data.
A secure API uses fine-grained access control to protect against these attacks. It also ensures that all injected data is sanitized at the entry point to reduce potential vulnerability.
Many API vulnerabilities are preventable with good logging, monitoring, and professional API management systems. By following these practices, API teams can minimize the likelihood of an attack and help maintain a solid public image.
What are the best practices for API security?
APIs are a crucial component of software development. They connect applications with services and data sources, enabling them to be more robust, agile, and cost-effective. But developers who don’t integrate API security into their SDLC leave their applications open to security threats.
As a result, many enterprises suffer massive API security breaches. These vulnerabilities often lead to significant data exposures and a loss of sensitive user data. These include the Cambridge Analytica Scandal, where an API vulnerability exposed the personal information of about 50 million Facebook users.
The best way to protect APIs is to follow industry-proven best practices, which vary by organization. These include four primary areas of focus: API discovery, posture management, runtime protection, and API security testing.
1. Wait to expose more data than necessary to meet your API’s purpose (e.g., only call OS commands after first validating input).
2. Enforce data access controls at the API level and monitor data flow to prevent leaks of confidential information.
3. Remember to mix authentication methods for the same resources.
Authentication is identifying a user or client as authorized to use a service. Implementing this securely is critical, as attackers can compromise authentication tokens and assume other user identities temporarily or permanently.